Microprocessor|Unit 2 |Component of Microprocessor

component of microprocesor

※Input; The act of entering data into a computer is known as Input.

※Input Device;A device that feeds(Give or Keep) data into a compute such as mouse or keybord is called an input device.

list of inpus device are;

a) Keyboard
b)Touch screen
c)Mouse
d)Trackball
e)lightpen
f)Joystick
g)Magnetic scanner

※Output; Data generated by a computer is refered as Output.

※Output device; An output device is an peripheral that recieves data form a computer usally for display.

list of output device;

a)monitor (LED LED, CRT, etc)
b)speaker
c)printer ( All type)
d)headphone
e)plotter
f)LCD projection Panel
g)projector etc.

※Memory;Memory is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily like RAM or permantly like harddisk.

※primary memory;Primary memory is a computer memory that accessed directly by the cpu.

Image of Primary Memory

Full Name of memory's type;

RAM:-Random Access memory
ROM:- Read only memory
SRAM:- Stalic Random Access memory
DRAME:-Dynamia Random Access Memory
PROM:- programable Read only memory
EPROM:-Erasable programable Read only memory
EEPROM:- Electrically Erasable programable Read only memory

※Cache memory;Cache memory is a small sized of volatile memory that provides high speed data accessed to processor and stores computer programs application and store data when current is present in computer and When Current isn't present in computer,it doesn't store data.

※Main memory;Main memory refers to physical memory that is internal memory of computer.

Type of main Memory;

a)RAM (Random access Memory)
b)ROM(Read Only Memory)

※RAM;RAM is a temporary memory of the computer where data and program instrucatios are stored while the computer is in operation. The data stored in RAM are lost forever when the computer is turned off so,RAM is also known as volatile.

Type of RAM;

a)SRAM (Static Random access memory)
b)DROM(Dynamic Random access memory)

※SRAM;It is a type of memory chip which is faster and require less power than Dynamic memory.

※DRAM; Tt is a type of RAM used in computing device.(it is used in laptop)

Different Between ROM and RAM

ROM RAM
It stands for Read only memory It stands for random access memory
It is non volatile or permanent memory It is volatile or temporary memory
It can read only It can read and write
It is comparatvely expensive It is comparatively cheaper.

Difference between SRAMS and DRAM.

SRAM DRAM
SRAM uses transistor to store a single bit of data DRAM uses a separate capacit or to store data.
SRAM does not need periodic refershement to maintan data DRAM need periodic refershment to maintaian in the capictor for charge.
SRAM Structure is complex than DRAM DRAM Structure is simple than SRAM
SRAM is faster than DRAM DRAM is slower than SRAM.

※ROM (Read only memory);Read only memory is a type of storage medium that permantly store data on personal computer and electronic Device.

There are 3 type of ROM;

a)PROM
b)EPROM
c)EEPROM

※PROM (programmable read only memory); A memory chip on which data can be written only once.Once a program has been written onto a PROM,It reamains forever.PROM retains their contents when the computer is truned off.

※EPROM (Erasable programable read only memory);A specials type of memory that retains it's content until it is exposed to ultraviolet lights.The ultraviolet light clears its content, making it possible to reprogrammed the memory.

※EEPROM (Electrically Erasable programmable read only memory);A Special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge like other type PROM,EEPROM retians.It's contents even when the power is turnoff.

Full form of Secondary Memory

HDD:- Hard disk drive
FDD:-floppy disk drive
CD:-compact disk
DVD:- Digital versatile disc
BRD:-Blu Ray disk
HVD:- Holograpbic versatile disk

※Secondary memory;The secondary memory is that facilitates the storage of large data on a more permanent basis for future reference also called Auxiliary memory.

※Magnetic Tape;Magnetic tape is a non volatile Storage Medium used for storing large volumes or data that are needed to be sequentially accesse and processed it has read/write heads and as the ribbon passes under the read/write heads. The data can be either read from the tape or written on the tape. It has a very slow data access time.

※Magnetic disk;A magnetic Storage device which is circular like disk and is coated with magnetic Material these disk can be accessed randomly.

※Hard disk;A hard disk is a storage device that stores data magentically in platters.It contians a circuit board that translates information to the bus of a computer (Mother board) to be used. It has protective case so that platter won't be affected by dust.Hard disk Consists of one or more platter, Each platter is a thin circular metal plate coated on both side with magnetic material. This platter is connected with spindle.There is an accessarm having read/write heads for each recording surface of the platter to read/write the data as the disk spins.It have master Boot record (MBR) whhich Store Operating system.

※Floppy disk; Floppy disk is a circular piece of thin plastic material with magnetic coating on one or both side.This plastic disk coated with magnetic material are permanetally sealed in square jacket to protect from dust and scratches.

※Optical dist:An optical disk is an electronic data Storage medium that can be written and read using a low powered laser beam.Optical disk is inexpensive to manufacture and data stored on them is relatively impervious to most environmental breats,Such as power surojes or magentic disturbances.The most widely used type of optical storage medium are CDROM,DVDROM and Blueray disk.

※CDROM;CDROM is a rigid plastic covered with a Layer of reflecting material such as aluminium.It store a large amount of data through the use of laser optics technology and popular for storing data base and multimedia materials.The most common format of CDROM holds appoximately 650-Megabyte of data.

※DVDROM;DVDROM is an optical storage medium capable of storing computer data and full length more on a single disk. It provides better graphics greater resolution and increased storage capacity.A standard singal layer,single sided DVD can store 4.7 GB of data.

※Blu ray disk;Blue Ray disk is an optical disk format such as CD and DVD. It was developed for recording and playing high definition (HD) video and for storing large amount of data.A single Blu Ray disk can hold up to 25 GB of data.

※Holographic versatile Disk (HVD);A holographic storage format that looks like a DVD but is capable of storing for more data.HVD has a capablity of 39 tera byte (TB) and transfer rate is 1 Giga byte persond to increase the capacity of holographic storage uses laser beams to store digital data in 3 dimensions rather than two dimension as in CD and DVD media.

※Flash memory ; It is a kind of memory that retains data in the absence of a power supply.

※Memory cards; A memory cards flash card or memory card ridge is an electronic Flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information.

※Pendrive;A pendrive variously known as a thumb drive it is stick flash stick jum drive disk key or USB memory is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an Intergrated USB interface.

※Central processing unit (CPU);The electronic circuitary within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, Control input/output operations specified by the instructions principal component of a cpu include ALU (Arithmetic logical unit), control unit (cu) and Registers speed Megabyte (Mb) Example; pentum, intel cerelor.

Different Between Primary memory and secondary memory

Primary Memory Secondary Memory
Primary memory is directly accessible by processor Secondary memory is not accessible by cpu
It is known as main memory It is known as auxiliary memory or additional memroy.
Primary memory is usally volatile Secondary memory is usally non-volatile.
Accessing data from primary memroy is faster accessing data from secondary is slow.

※An Arithmicie logical Units(ALU): An arithmetic logical unit is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operation.It contains the accumulator,the temporary register,logical and arithmetic circuit.

※Control unit(CU); The nerve control of the central processing unit that directs and co-ordinates the activity of the entire computer the control unit functions in fetch - decode execute cycle. It Fetches the data and instructions from the main memoryr decodes them and send them to Alu.The output from the AlU is fetches by the control unit and sent to various parts of the computer.

※Registers;The register is the memory location in the cpu to hold the address of current instructions beings executed, the control unit consist of several registers like MDR, Adress Register, instruction register, sequance register and Accumulaton.

※Address Register;It store or holds the address of the data and instruction.

※Instruction register;It sends the instruction or data from one place to another.

※Sequence Register;The sequence register more on to the next instructons.

※Accumulactor;Accumulator is a type of register which holds the date.

8085 Bus Structure

※8085 bus structure;The microprocessor unit (MPU) perfrom the variabls operations with peripheral device or a memory location by using three set of communication lines called bus,The adressbus, the databus and the control bus. And these three combined lines are called as system bus.

※Adress bus;The address bus is a group of 16-bit line generally called as Ao-A15 to carry a 16 bit address of memory locationis identitied by a binary number called an address this is similar to the postal address of a house.The address bus in uni-directional that means bit flow in only one direction from MPU to peripheral.MPU carries 16 bit address ie 216=65536 or 64 KB memory location.

※DATABUS;The data bus is a group of eight bidirectional used for data flow in both direction between MPU and peripheral device.The 8 data lines are manupulating 8 bit data ranging from 00 to ff. This 8 bit data is called as word length and the register Size of Micro processor is called 8-bit microprocessor.

※Control bus; Control bus is having various single lines used for sending control Signal in the form of pluse to the memory and input/output device. Some of these control Signals are memory read memory write,Input Output read and Input Output write.

Data flow from memory to MPU (microprocessor unit)

let's assume that we are trying to fetch the instruction (opcode )at memory location 2005. the following sequence of operations are follows;

a)The program counter places the adress values on the address bus and controller Issues a Read signal.
b)The memory's address decoder gets the value and determines which memory location is being accessede.
c)The value in the memory location is placed on the data bus.
d)The value on the data bus is read into the instructor decoder inside the microprocessor.
e)After decoding the instruction the control unit issue is the proper control signals to perforń the operation.

Data flow from Memory to MPU

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